2. any of a group of drugs closely related to this substance and having similar actions, such as methamphetamine and dextroamphetamine. Chem. |, Role of Melatonin in Reducing Amphetamine-Induced Degeneration in Substantia Nigra of Rats via Calpain and Calpastatin Interaction |, Neuroprotective effects of melatonin on amphetamine-induced dopaminergic fiber degeneration in the hippocampus of postnatal rats. Popularly known as bennies, crank, speed, pep pills, wakeups, or uppers, amphetamines are addictive and easily abused: users can become psychologically dependent on the drugs and, developing a tolerance for them, can require increasingly large doses (see drug addiction and drug abuse drug addiction and drug abuse, Progress in Neurobiology, 75 6, 406-33. Amphetamine has a high abuse potential and can cause dependence with chronic use. Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. The list below includes some known dangerous combinations (although it cannot be guaranteed to include all of them). They are somewhat comparable to. Tell your doctor if you have had problems with drug or alcohol abuse. It is worth noting that these effects will not necessarily occur in a consistent or reliable manner, although higher doses are more likely to induce the full spectrum of effects. When dependence has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if use is suddenly discontinued. It is purely a drug of abuse and has no medical function, unlike many others. J. The hyperthermia and the hypertension produced by high doses amphetamines are a primary cause of transient breakdowns in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) resulting in concomitant regional neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in laboratory animals. Ulična imena, joÅ¡ su meth i chalk. Rasmussen N (July 2006). The LD50 (the dosage required to kill 50% of the test subjects) of amphetamine in rats has been found to be between roughly 15 mg and 180 mg per kilogram, depending on the study. Amphetamine is a chiral compound. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. [14] Outside Europe, the illicit market for amphetamine is much smaller than the market for methamphetamine and MDMA. Efficacy of psychostimulant drugs for amphetamine abuse or dependence. It is odorless and has a slightly bitter taste. Prog. Amphetamine exerts its behavioral effects by altering the use of monoamines as neuronal signals in the brain, primarily in catecholamine neurons in the reward and executive function pathways of the brain. PMID 15955613. These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. [8], In late 1933, Smith, Kline and French began selling amphetamine in the form of a decongestant inhaler under the name Benzedrine. (June 2014). Mohan J, ed. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2010.05906.x. PMID 22037049. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.10.007. Wells first started to develop a speed-enhancing drug after Zoom appeared on his Earth, and it was meant to aid "Jay Garrick" in his struggles against the super-villain Zoom. [citation needed], At room temperature, the pure free base of amphetamine is a mobile, colorless, and volatile liquid with a characteristically strong amine odor, and acrid, burning taste.[15]. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, (1), CD003026-CD003026. United States National Library of Medicine – National Center for Biotechnology Information. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. Amphetamine exerts its behavioural effects by increasing the signaling activity of neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the reward and executive function pathways of the brain. 10 Things You Should Know About Speed drug. Retrieved 13 October 2013. DISCLAIMER: PW's dosage information is gathered from users and resources for educational purposes only. Jg. In Sydor A, Brown RY. "Mechanisms of neurotransmitter release by amphetamines: a review". Speed is a common street drug, made synthetically in manufacturing facilities or ‘super labs’ around the world and sold under a wide variety of legal and illegal means. Crystal Meth, also known as crystal or meth. |, Pérez‐Mañá, C., Castells, X., Torrens, M., Capellà, D., & Farre, M. (2013). Lisdexamfetamine is the same drug (dextroamphetamine) BUT is bound to an Amino acid L-Lysine and needs to be metabolized in order to convert it into useable D-Amphetamine, it takes time for this conversion to happen leading to a prolonged T-Max and C-max and more stable overall dosage and effects throughout the entire serum level. p. 370. Amphetamine, past and present–a pharmacological and clinical perspective. "Amphetamine- and methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia: Implications of the effects produced in brain vasculature and peripheral organs to forebrain neurotoxicity". It is removed excreted by the kidneys and only a small amount by hepatic enzymes. Lazăr Edeleano: Über einige Derivate der Phenylmethacrylsäure und der Phenylisobuttersäure. (1887), Band 3, S. 616–622. Adult ADHD Medications and Their Cardiovascular Implications |, Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Lisdexamfetamine Compared with d-Amphetamine in Healthy Subjects |, Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite |, Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of d rugs of potential misuse (ScienceDirect) |, Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). J. Psychopharmacol. Although many psychoactive substances are reasonably safe to use on their own, they can quickly become dangerous or even life-threatening when combined with other substances. Simple English: Amphetamine is a synthetic drug. Heal, D. J., Smith, S. L., Gosden, J., & Nutt, D. J. These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. [4] Methamphetamine has two isomers, "left-handed" and "right-handed". Speed drug is an illicit substance that belongs to a group of stimulant drugs known as amphetamines. Speedball is a dangerous mixture, often more so than the sum of the parts due to drug synergy.The original speedball used cocaine hydrochloride mixed with morphine sulfate, as opposed to heroin. Speed drug also known by the names; upper, phet, billy, whiz, sulph, base, dexedrine, or dexamphetamine is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting central nervous system stimulant, chemically related to amphetamine, but with greater central nervous system effect which begins within 20 minutes and lasts for 4-6 hours. Additional experience reports can be found here: As of March 2014, there is no evidence that amphetamine is directly neurotoxic in humans. [21] Consequently, dextroamphetamine produces greater CNS stimulation than levoamphetamine, roughly three to four times more, but levoamphetamine has slightly stronger cardiovascular and peripheral effects.[22][23]. PMC 2478360  Freely accessible. "Methamphetamine for Hitler's Germany: 1937 to 1945". Synapse, 39 1, 32-41. doi: 10.1002/1098-2396(20010101)39:1<32::AID-SYN5>3.0.CO;2-3. "Chapter 13: Higher Cognitive Function and Behavioral Control". Sulzer D, Sonders MS, Poulsen NW, Galli A (April 2005). PMID 21272013. The addictive potential of this substance is rather high as well. Pharmacologic mechanisms of crystal meth. [38], Melatonin has been shown to prevent (if used 30min+ before dosing) and reverse amphetamine induced neurotoxicity of TH-pSer40 and calpastatin levels in the Substantia Nigra of rats.[39][40]. Google, DuckDuckGo) should always be conducted to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe to consume. Med. Prijeđi na navigaciju Prijeđi na pretraživanje. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. "Making the first anti-depressant: amphetamine in American medicine, 1929–1950". See responsible use section. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils. Methamphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is an equal mixture of levomethamphetamine … When an object changes speed, it gets faster or … The pharmacology and clinical outcomes of amphetamines to treat ADHD: does composition matter? The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. In late 1933, Smith, Kline and French began selling amphetamine in the form of a decongestant inhaler under the name Benz… Speed (droga) Izvor: Wikipedija. Učinci su, na srediÅ¡nji živčani sustav, jači nego kod amfetamina. As its addictive properties became known, governments began to place strict controls on its sale. ISBN 9780195030570. Dosages from TripSit Factsheets All amphetamines, whether legal or illegal, activate chemical processes throughout the brain and body and so “speed up” most every bodily function. Ann. Shoptaw, S. J., Kao, U., & Ling, W. (2009). PMID 23539642. Amphetamine is considered to be the quintessential member of the stimulant class due to its extensively studied effects and long history of clinical use. Central nervous system stimulants: historical aspects and clinical effects. p. 3. Baumann, M., Carroll, F.I., Dersch, C.M., Partilla, J.S., Rothman, R.B., Romero, D., & Rice, K. (2001). PMC 4183197 Freely accessible. Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). Its absorption and excretion may be pH dependent. It was one of a series of compounds related to the plant derivative Ephedrine, which had been purified two years previously by Nagayoshi Nagai. Today, amphetamine is used clinically for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. Berman, S. M., Kuczenski, R., McCracken, J. T., & London, E. D. (2009). Withdrawal symptoms include paranoia, depression, dream potentiation, anxiety, itching, mood swings, irritability, fatigue, insomnia, an intense craving for more amphetamine or other stimulants. Recreational use of amphetamine is associated with abuse and dependence. Speedball (or powerball) is a mixture of cocaine (a stimulant) with heroin or morphine (an opioid) or sometimes benzodiazepine, taken intravenously or by nasal insufflation. Depending on purity, amphetamine doses will vary. "World Drug Report 2014" (PDF). Hist. Initially, amphetamine was more popularly used to reduce appetite and to control weight. Tremors 8. Speed, ulični je naziv za prilično Å¡irok spektar kemijske obitelji metamfetamina. Addiction to speed drug presents in a specific way, and this article’s information will discuss more on the signs, adverse effects, and how to treat an … The Emerging Role of Trace Amine Associated Receptor 1 in the Functional Regulation of Monoamine Transporters and Dopaminergic Activity (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |. The name 'amphetamine' is a contraction from αlphamethylphenethylamine, Attention disorders are often treated using Adderall or a generic equivalent, a formulation of mixed amphetamine salts that contain both racemic-amphetamine, in the sulfate and aspartate monohydrate salt forms, and enantiopure dextroamphetamine, in the sulfate and saccharate salt forms, mixed to yield a final ratio of 3 parts dextroamphetamine to 1 part levoamphetamine. Methamphetamine, when abused, is commonly r… The generally tolerant official drug policy in the Third Reich, the period of Nazi control of Germany from the 1933 Machtergreifung to Germany's 1945 defeat in World War II, was inherited from the Weimar government which was installed in 1919 following the dissolution … It is highly advised to use harm reduction practices if using this substance. Dangerous poisoning. PMID 22073434. Benzedrine sulfate was introduced 3 years later and was used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions, including narcolepsy, obesity, low blood pressure, low libido, and chronic pain. The exact bioavailability of amphetamine is not known, but it is believed to be over 75% by mouth, and higher by injection or intranasal administration[24][25]. Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Medical. Delusions These effects are typically short-term and last only as long as the user has the substance in their systems. It is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting powder that easily dissolves in water or alcohol. Amphetamine (also known as alpha-methylphenethylamine, amfetamine, and speed) is a stimulant substance of the phenethylamine class. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009695.pub2. In Sydor A, Brown RY. Finding speed. [13], Amphetamine is still illegally synthesized and sold on the black market, primarily in European countries. This page was last modified on 6 December 2020, at 20:40. Important information. Amphetamine was first synthesized in Germany in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu, who named it phenylisopropylamine.However, its stimulant effects remained unknown until 1927, when it was independently re-synthesized by Gordon Alles and discovered to have sympathomimetic properties. Cardiovascular system failures 3. Using speed can lead to health, social and financial problems. Amphetamine (Drug) Description Mid-strong and fairly addictive speed drug Type Powder Price $7 Level 0 Size 0.5 Weight 0.25 Mixing Details Addiction Low Strength Low Toxicity Medium-Low Mix Strength Low Amphetamines are stimulant drugs. Angrist, B., & Sudilovsky, A. [11][12] [47] A review on treatment for amphetamine abuse-induced psychosis states that about 5–15% of users fail to recover completely. During 2012, approximately 5.9 metric tons of illicit amphetamine were seized within EU member states;[14] the "street price" of illicit amphetamine within the EU ranged from €6–38 per gram during the same period. "Chemical and Physical Properties". J. Interdiscip. Eiden LE, Weihe E (January 2011). In Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC. The reinforcing and motivational effects of amphetamine are mostly due to enhanced dopaminergic activity in the mesolimbic pathway. [18][19][20] Combined action on TAAR1 and VMAT2 results in increased concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine in the synapses, which stimulates neuronal activity. Speed also goes by the street names “Ice, Crystal meth and Shabu ” 2 The drug works using Dopamine. The basic form is more readily absorbed in the intestine and less readily removed by the kidneys, potentially increasing its half life [25]. [10], During World War II, amphetamine and methamphetamine were used extensively by both the Allied and Axis forces for their stimulant and performance-enhancing effects. "15". " Black beauty " was a drug street-name used in the '60s and '70s to refer to a pill of pharmaceutical amphetamine (aka speed). [47] Psychosis very rarely arises from therapeutic use.[49][50]. Bull. Many of these effects are not life-threatening, but potential dangers exist fo… He called the compound "phenylisopropylamine". Molecular Neuropharmacology: A Foundation for Clinical Neuroscience (2nd ed.). "Hyperthermia alone does not produce amphetamine-like neurotoxicity but AMPH and METH exposures that do not produce hyperthermia (≥40°C) are minimally neurotoxic. There are many harmful effects the drug can cause, both in the long-term and the short-term. Berlin; London: Springer. Amphetamine is a potent full agonist of the trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) and interacts with vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). ISBN 9783540686989. 318, 321. Subjective effects include stimulation, focus enhancement, motivation enhancement, increased libido, appetite suppression, and euphoria. Stolerman IP, ed. In animal models that evaluate the neurotoxicity of AMPH and METH, it is quite clear that hyperthermia is one of the essential components necessary for the production of histological signs of dopamine terminal damage and neurodegeneration in cortex, striatum, thalamus and hippocampus." 22 (250): 205–218. Methamphetamine (also called meth or speed) is a man-made stimulant drug. Lower doses tend to increase focus and productivity while higher doses tend to increase sociability, sexual desire, and euphoria. Internationally, amphetamine is a Schedule II controlled substance under the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[51]. These include: 1. Methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule II stimulant by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), which means it has a high potential for abuse and is available legally only by prescription. "Trace amine-associated receptor 1 is a stereoselective binding site for compounds in the amphetamine class". ISBN 9780071624428. Sci. There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Many different names are used for amphetamines. Chemically, it is similar to methamphetamine. (2005). 1 (3): 172–182. Headaches 6. Kish, S. J. Amphetamine is not approved for use in children less than 6 years of age, with the exception of Evekeo (approved for children age 3 and older). [14] Among European Union (EU) member states, 1.2 million young adults used illicit amphetamine or methamphetamine in 2013. 1. a white crystalline powder used as a central nervous system stimulant. Bett WR (August 1946). 1216: 86–98. However, its stimulant effects remained unknown until 1927, when it was independently re-synthesized by Gordon Alles and discovered to have sympathomimetic properties. Retrieved 29 January 2012. Ecstasy, also known as candy or MDMA. Addiction is a serious risk with heavy recreational amphetamine use, but is unlikely to arise from typical medical use.[44][45][46]. A version of the drug, created by "Jay", seemingly caused the loss of his powers, as well as his cellular degenerative disease. doi:10.1136/pgmj.22.250.205. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is used in all … Some interactions listed have been sourced from TripSit. Dangerously high body temperatures 2. Amfetamine (in straattaal ook wel speed, pep, snelle of belly genoemd) is een synthetisch psychofarmacon en drug.De dextro-isomeer van amfetamine (dextro-amfetamine) wordt voorgeschreven als therapie voor ADHD en narcolepsie.Het racemaat van amfetamine kent momenteel geen medicinale toepassingen in Nederland en wordt slechts recreatief gebruikt. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. ISBN 9780071481274. [33] However, high-dose amphetamine can cause indirect neurotoxicity as a result of increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and autoxidation of dopamine. When prescription amphetamines are taken orally and in low doses, drug abuse and addiction is not a serious risk. Amphetamine was first synthesized in Germany in 1887 by the Romanian chemist Lazăr Edeleanu, who named it phenylisopropylamine. 42 (2): 205–233. Hofmann FG (1983). Paranoia 4. Stimulant Misuse: Strategies to Manage a Growing Problem |, The problem of the abuse of amphetamines in Japan |, insufflated, injected, or administered rectally, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.04.003, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22329564, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2526380/, https://doi.org/10.1002/cber.188702001142, https://doi.org/10.1016/s1522-8649(11)50016-2, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3005101/, http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00182#targets, http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/ObjectDisplayForward?objectId=364, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4992783/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5594082/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4843092/, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673607604644, http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/r?dbs+hsdb:@term+@rn+@rel+300-62-9, http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00204-012-0815-5, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18596830, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5008711/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5562346/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29149481, http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+3287, http://web.archive.org/web/20070217053619/http://www.merck.com/mmhe/sec07/ch108/ch108g.html, http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2013/021303s026lbl.pdf, http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=374§ionid=41266218&jumpsectionID=41268855, http://www.acha.org/prof_dev/ADHD_docs/ADHD_PDprogram_Article2.pdf, "CONVENTION ON PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES 1971", http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/C-38.8/page-24.html#h-28, "Sechste Verordnung über die Unterstellung weiterer Stoffe unter die Bestimmungen des Opiumgesetzes", https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1957-01-01_3_page003.html, "Verordnung des EDI über die Verzeichnisse der Betäubungsmittel, psychotropen Stoffe, Vorläuferstoffe und Hilfschemikalien", http://narcotic.fda.moph.go.th/faq/upload/Thai%20Narcotic%20Act%202012.doc._37ef.pdf, http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1971/38/schedule/2, http://www.fda.gov/regulatoryinformation/legislation/ucm148726.htm, https://psychonautwiki.org/w/index.php?title=Amphetamine&oldid=144763, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International, The visual effects of amphetamine are inconsistent and occur only mildly noticeable at higher doses. Sometimes, the drug is used for fun or to boost performance. Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887, but its psychostimulant effects were not discovered until 1929. Stolerman IP (2010). pp. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely with higher doses and may include serious injury or death. Racemic amphetamine (dl-amphetamine) contains two optical isomers, or enantiomers: Adderall and many other formulations of mixed amphetamine salts contain the enantiomers in a 3:1 ratio of d to l. This is achieved by mixing one part racemic amphetamine and one part d-amphetamine. (PubMed.gov / NCBI) |, Update on Amphetamine Neurotoxicity and Its Relevance to the Treatment of ADHD |, Bowyer JF, Hanig JP (November 2014). They include Benzedrine and speed. Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 by Lazar Edeleanu at the University of Berlin. Speed is classed as a ‘stimulant’ because it speeds up the messages going to and from your brain. 99-165). Speed is a drug that targets your brain’s ‘reward system’ to produce a positive sensation that can become addictive. The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant most frequently used as a recreational drug. [41] No formal studies in humans have been carried out and the exact toxic dosage is unknown. It is usually taken orally, but can also be insufflated, injected, or administered rectally. "Historical overview of methamphetamine". (2008). However, the first five attempts (Velocity 1 to 5) were failures. Treatment for amphetamine psychosis. Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. [7] Med. Amphetamine acts by promoting the release of the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain.[2]. The drug is a stimulant: it can help people keep the focus and stay awake. This page was last changed on 19 April 2020, at 05:37. Defalque RJ, Wright AJ (April 2011). Amphetamine. [9] Many people use it illegally, but it is occasionally used legally by prescription to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or obesity as "Desoxyn". Nausea 5. New York: Oxford University Press. Bioorg. 75 (6): 406–433. [34][35][36], In rodents and primates, sufficiently high doses of amphetamine causes damage to dopamine neurons, characterized as reduced transporter and receptor function. What is speed? Lewin AH, Miller GM, Gilmour B (December 2011). Disclaimer: The effects listed below cite the Subjective Effect Index (SEI), a literature based on anecdotal reports and the personal experiences of PsychonautWiki contributors. Heal DJ, Smith SL, Gosden J, Nutt DJ (June 2013). p. 78. PMID 16492800. Springer, Boston, MA. Upon single administration, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reports the typical retail price of amphetamine in Europe varied between €3 and €15 ($4 to $21.55 USD) a gram in half of the reporting countries. 27 (6): 479–496. [3] In the 1930s, it began to be marketed and sold over-the-counter under the name Benzedrine. PMC 3666194 Freely accessible. [3] The name amphetamine is derived from its chemical name: alpha-methylphenethylamine. A Handbook on Drug and Alcohol Abuse: The Biomedical Aspects (2nd ed.). Marihuana, also known as grass, ganja, weed or MJ. Amphetamine, also known as amp, fet or speed. PMC 3236098 Freely accessible. [47][48] The same review asserts that antipsychotic medications effectively resolve the symptoms of acute amphetamine psychosis. Mental effects may include an intense feeling of happiness, sexual arousal, loss of contact with reality, or agitation. Speed is amphetamine, a stimulating drug that triggers the brain’s reward system giving the user feelings of pleasure. N. Y. Acad. It is not a recommendation and should be verified with other sources for accuracy. [37] Animal models of neurotoxicity from high-dose amphetamine exposure indicate that the occurrence of hyperpyrexia (i.e., core body temperature ≥ 40 °C) is necessary for the development of amphetamine-induced neurotoxicity. ISBN 9780071481274. p. 329. Amphetamine may be habit-forming, and this medicine is a drug of abuse. "Miscellaneous Sympathomimetic Agonists" |. A powerful stimulant that keeps people alert, usually sold as an off-white or pinkish powder – that sometimes look like small crystals How it looks, tastes and smells How do people take it? It was then introduced i… In: Berichte der Deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin; 20. As a result, they should be treated with a healthy amount of skepticism. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical. ", Dopaminergic neuron-specific oxidative stress caused by dopamine itself. It also decreases appetite and fatigue. The reinforcing and motivational salience-promoting ef… Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (9). (2013). Postgrad. To find speed , = where is the distance and is the time that has gone by.. Units of measurement for speed. [42][43] Some of the street names for amphetamine include meth, ice, crystal meth, and crank. Molecular Psychiatry, 14(2), 123. [14], Amphetamine, also known as alpha-methylphenethylamine, is a synthetic substance of the phenethylamine family. Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology. Tolerance to many of the effects of amphetamine develops with prolonged and repeated use. [5][6] Additionally, it sees widespread illicit use as a performance enhancing agent and recreational substance. Hyperthermia likely enhances AMPH and METH neurotoxicity directly through disruption of protein function, ion channels and enhanced ROS production. Hist. Med. In reality, "Jay" had in fact increased his speed, but at the cost o… J. Hist. Temperature (Austin). PMID 20997404. "VMAT2: a dynamic regulator of brain monoaminergic neuronal function interacting with drugs of abuse". Dextroamphetamine is a more potent agonist of TAAR1 than levoamphetamine. Malenka RC, Nestler EJ, Hyman SE (2009). Neurobiol. Government of Vermont. Speed (methamphetamine, C10H15N) is a potent and addictive central nervous system stimulant, chemically related to amphetamine, but with greater central nervous system side effects. Westfall DP, Westfall TC (2010). Independent research (e.g. Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (12th ed.). Chemically, it is the parent compound of the substituted amphetamines, a group which includes a diverse range of substances like bupropion, phenmetrazine, MDMA, and DOx. [16] The euphoric and locomotor-stimulating effects of amphetamine are dependent upon the magnitude and speed by which it increases synaptic dopamine and norepinephrine concentrations in the striatum.[17]. 61 (3): 288–323. It is also used to treat symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the daytime drowsiness symptoms of narcolepsy, amongst others. In Stimulants (pp. Speed is a dangerous, illicit drug that can cause many of the same effects as cocaine, crack, and other stimulants. Strictly speaking, a black beauty was a tablet of Biphetamine, manufactured by Strasenburgh Labs, then Pennwalt Corporation, and finally Fisons Corporation, before finally being pulled from the market in 1998. Branded amphetamine, like Adderall, knows similar yet better documented and thus more predictable doses. [1][2] The class of drugs containing amphetamine includes prescription drugs commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). doi:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2005.04.003. These drugs increase the level of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which can create euphoria. Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. "Unlike cocaine and amphetamine, methamphetamine is directly toxic to midbrain dopamine neurons. PMID 22849208. Het gebruik is geestelijk verslavend. The chemical structure of amphetamine consists of phenethylamine, a phenyl ring bound to an amino (NH2) group through an ethyl chain, with an additional methyl substitution at Rα. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, "Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release in Human Ventral Striatum Correlates with Euphoria", https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amphetamine&oldid=6904981, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. The concentrations of the main neurotransmitters involved in reward circuitry and executive functioning, dopamine and norepinephrine, increase dramatically in a dose-dependent manner by amphetamine because of its effects on monoamine transporters. Allied Sci. "Benzedrine sulphate in clinical medicine; a survey of the literature". Severe amphetamine overdose can result in a stimulant psychosis that may present with a variety of symptoms (e.g., paranoia, hallucinations, delusions).
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